Setting up a wireless articulation needs a little bit of ability about wireless and about computer
systems. To awning all of it in one ‘simple’ certificate agency advice will be missing, but the
information beneath is abundant to get Wireless units up and running. It’s disconnected into four sections:
1. Computer networks and ‘IP addresses’
2. Wireless networking
3. How to change IP addresses on a PC active XP, Vista or Wins 7, and on a
4. Ambience up Ubiquiti units in Arch and Access Point/Client Modes
You can skip any breadth absolutely if you already apperceive about it.
1. Computer networks and ‘IP addresses’
If you apperceive what an IP abode is, what anatomy it takes and why it charge be a altered number,
skip this breadth completely.
This breadth applies to PCs on a arrangement – i.e. any PC that talks to addition device
somewhere else. A distinct home PC affiliated to the internet is allotment of a network. A
Standalone PC in an appointment with a wireless router absorbed is a network.
What’s an IP address?
Every networked PC has an address, aloof as a abode or business has an abode so it can
be found. 123, Acacia Avenue, Cheam, is an archetype of a UK address. In the apple of
computers we us e altered numbers instead. A PC’s network
address ability about be 220.127.116.11 and the accomplished cardinal it can possibly be is
255.255.255.255. Aback the calculation arrangement was invented (called IPv4) it was assumed
that it would be abundant to accord a altered cardinal to every computer anytime acceptable to abide by
providing 4.3 billion accessible addresses, but on February 3, 2011 the numbers ran out, so a
new arrangement is advancing on beck alleged IPv6 to acquiesce for a lot more. This won’t affect your
reading of this certificate as accomplishing of IPv6 is a little way off yet.
The arrangement was advised so that any IP abode could be added disconnected by application a similar
numbering assumption alleged a subnet, the accomplished cardinal accessible actuality 255.255.255.255.
(This would be like adding 123 Acacia Avenue into a actual ample cardinal of actual baby flats).
Typically the subnet affectation is not acclimated and is larboard at its absence cardinal of 255.255.255.0.
If you appetite to apperceive added about the detail of IP acclamation there’s a actual abounding account at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_address but all we charge to apperceive now is that every PC on a arrangement has a altered IP abode as four sets of three digits afar by a abounding stop –nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
What are they acclimated for and why?
Think of an appointment with 100 PCs in it. Anniversary one needs its own IP abode to analyze it
uniquely, and so does the appointment as a whole. This could be achieved, for example, by giving
the absolute appointment one abode – let’s say 192.168.2.254 – and giving the 100 PCs numbers
192.168.2.1 through to 192.168.2.100.
All the PCs are afresh active aback to a box (called a router) that picks up abstracts from one
machine and sends it to another, and the router would apparently be cardinal 254 in the
example above. A router works like the Post Office, sending and carrying packets of data.
It knows breadth to accelerate them because every packet of abstracts advancing from one PC (think of an
envelope absolute a letter) has an IP abode on the ‘outside’ of it adage breadth it’s going
and addition IP abode absorbed to it adage breadth it’s appear from. The router box routes the
traffic on the arrangement to the adapted places application the IP addresses absorbed to the abstracts that’s
travelling through it. Usually, the router is absorbed to the internet too, so that abstracts from the
world alfresco the appointment can appear in and out. Looked at from the alfresco apple end, the
entire appointment would accept the IP abode 192.168.1.254 and the appointment router handles data
coming in from the alfresco and aural the appointment to accomplish abiding it arrives at the adapted PC.
Why the IP abode charge be ‘right’
If a PC user wants to attending at article on a web folio about on the internet they
would accessible up a web browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, they all do the aforementioned job)
and blazon in the name of the abode they appetite to go in the anatomy of www.bloggsltd.co.uk. The
browser sends this abstracts to the router in the office, which afresh sends it on from its own IP
address to web servers. Making a actual continued news abbreviate the web servers attending up a huge list
to acquisition bllogsltd.co.uk and ascertain what its IP abode is. They afresh accelerate on the appeal for
a home folio to the server at that address, which sends aback the home folio abstracts all the
way aback to the appointment router, which passes that to the PC that asked for it and the user gets
to see the page. The abstracts appeal could biking through hundreds of routers and servers and
back afresh in a atom of a added and the arrangement relies absolutely on alive the actual IP
addresses adapted bottomward the line. Thus IP addresses accept to be absolutely adapted or the data
doesn’t appear aback to the adapted place. What’s more, if any of the 100 machines, which can
currently ‘see’ all the others in the appointment were to accept its IP abode afflicted say from
192.168.2.80 to 192.168.3. 80 it wouldn’t ‘see’ any of the added machines and none of the
others would see it (rather like it aback actuality confused to a altered street). And if someone
changed the abode of PC cardinal .100 to .99 there would aback be two machines on
the arrangement with abode .99 which could abash the poor router no end (just as the
postman would accept agitation with a letter addressed to Acacia Avenue cardinal 123 AND
number 122: he wouldn’t apperceive which abode in Acacia Avenue to pop the letter into.
Where do IP addresses appear from?
To save users accepting to apprentice all about IP addresses and how to set up a computer with an
address to clothing its use on a specific network, it is actual accepted to accept the router decide
what the IP addresses for all the arrangement PCs should be and acquaint them to aloof booty the
number they are given. The ability is accepted as DHCP and routers, or abounding added devices,
can be set to duke out IP addresses to added accessories by application DHCP. Breadth this ability is acclimated there is a ambience in Windows to ‘Obtain an IP abode automatically’ and the action is
automated, and a fresh PC will commonly be set up for automated aback it comes out of its box.
It’s important not to accept two accessories on a arrangement both handing out DHCP! Also, if the
automatic affection is acclimated the IP abode of anniversary PC may change abutting time it or the network
router is restarted. Sometimes it is added acceptable to accord a PC a anchored cardinal that it will keep
To sum up:
• Every PC has a altered abode in the anatomy of nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn (though it could be just
n.n.n.n, or nnn.n.nn.n, or any aggregate of them, breadth n is beneath than 256)
• There is acceptable to be a subnet abode for anniversary PC, about 255.255.255.0
• No two PCs can accept the aforementioned IP abode on the aforementioned network.
• If a PC is not in the adapted IP abode ambit (one of the numbers added than the final
numbers is not the aforementioned as all the others) it won’t be able to acquaint with any other
PC because it’s not on the aforementioned network.
• PCs may get their IP abode automatically from a arrangement router application DHCP.
Finally, until wireless networking came along, PCs were active up on the arrangement through
cables abutting anniversary one aback to the router. Now the aforementioned affair can be done afterwards the
wire – i.e. wire-less-ly.
2. Wireless networks
If you already apperceive about band of sight, frequencies, channels and allotment suitable
antenna, skip this section.
A wireless arrangement is a arrangement acclimated to articulation two or added PCs calm afterwards application cables
to do it. This can be actual acceptable and avoids the bulk of laying cables in – which is very
costly if you appetite to articulation two offices on adverse abandon of boondocks as it involves digging up
roads, or renting a active line.. If you appetite to about-face all-inclusive quantities of abstracts afresh a
copper cable amid the two credibility may be the alone way to do it but about costs many
thousands of pounds a year for rental and is an big-ticket band-aid if the added appointment is just
across the road. If you appetite to about-face beneath data, afresh a wireless accession at one-off bulk of
just a few hundreds of pounds may action a abiding solution, but wireless doesn’t action a
solution in all cases.
What is bare to be able to accomplish a wireless connection?
Wireless needs band of afterimage – that is the assemblage at one end charge be able to ‘see’ the assemblage at the
other with no obstructions in the path, aloof as you can. About a wireless assemblage has a radio
and antenna axial it, so it sends out a radio signal. At the added end of the articulation addition of
the aforementioned assemblage listens for the radio arresting afresh sends aback data. To do this auspiciously the radio and antenna it is affiliated to charge accommodated assertive requirements:
• The radio charge be acceptable abundant to accelerate out a adapted arresting and acute abundant to
‘hear’ the arresting advancing back. (There may be added wireless systems in the breadth sending
out signals too, so aback a assemblage is alert it charge be able to acquisition out which signals it
should be alert to and avoid all the others in the breadth – added on this below.)
• The antenna charge be able to aces up signals advancing from the adapted direction. The antenna
in best radio units sends out absolutely a attenuated axle in aloof one administration so they charge to
be pointing at anniversary other. (Think of two torches some ambit afar – they charge be
shining anon at anniversary added so that the beams band up.) About the axle is about 35
degrees up/down and left/right and looks like a cone:
The added the axle the added the arresting is blown over a accustomed distance, so if long-distance
links are adapted a bowl with a pencil axle would do well, but for a abbreviate articulation a
wider axle is fine. The ‘power’ of the antenna is rated with a cardinal which tells how
much the axle is focussed in aloof one direction, so in the pictures aloft the advanced beam
might accept a ‘gain’ bulk of 10 dBi, while the bowl has a accretion of 28 dBi. How these
numbers chronicle to anniversary other, what dBi agency and how the concrete admeasurement of the antenna relates to the accretion are aloft the ambit of this certificate but added advice is accessible at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antenna_gain
So, to articulation two credibility by wireless we charge two radio units abiding article like this:
But because we charge accept band of sight, this articulation wouldn’t work:
neither would the one below, because absolutely a lot of the arresting is aloft and below
the centre line. Looked at end-on, the radio axle is absolutely added like this:
The band through the average is the band of afterimage and the breadth about it is alleged the Fresnel
Zone, which carries absolutely a lot of the signal. In fact, if you block 20% of the Fresnel area you’ll lose 40% of the signal, so it’s not abundant to be able to accept a band of afterimage amid two credibility like a allotment of cord – for archetype aloof over the top of a architecture to the point you can see on the far ancillary – there charge be affluence of bright amplitude all about the centre band too. Aloof for the record, actionable wireless links in the UK accomplish on two frequencies – 2.4 and 5.8 GHz – and at those frequencies band of afterimage is basic and the arresting doesn’t biking actual far – conceivably 20 kms with a bowl antenna, 5 kms with the abate antenna. Signals can be chock-full absolutely with blubbery bean walls and copse are a absolute obstacle. (The alone acknowledgment to copse in the aisle is a alternation saw.) Mobile phones, which assignment on a lower frequency, can access bean and brick added easily, which is why users don’t accept to angle alfresco – admitting they may accept to in poor arresting areas – and for the aforementioned affidavit the units acclimated for wireless networks absolutely are best placed alfresco a architecture in chargeless amplitude and finer at atomic 3 metres aloft arena level.
Point to Point (PTP) and Point to Multipoint (PTMP).
Wireless units can accomplish in altered ways, alleged modes. You ability appetite to aloof link
two places calm (Point to Point – anticipate of a wire strung amid two buildings) or one
central assemblage ability be adapted to allocution to abounding others (Point to MultiPoint – anticipate of a
telephone pole in the artery with affairs active from it to abounding buildings). Wireless units
need to be told the aboriginal time they are set up which approach they charge to use. Arch Mode
means Point to Point: the assemblage at anniversary end is set up in Arch approach so they can alone talk
to anniversary other. For Point to MultiPoint use the assemblage to be acclimated as the axial point is set in
Access Point Approach and the abounding accessory units are set in Client, or Station, mode.
To sum up
• Wireless networks charge band of sight
• Band of afterimage agency a absolute band amid two credibility and a fair bulk of chargeless amplitude about that line, with no advance by barrio or copse into the fresnel zone.
• Units charge to be alleged that will accomplish at the ambit adapted and the axle arrangement and accretion of the antenna charge be anxiously considered
• Channels accessible can be absolutely active on 2.4 GHz so 5.8 GHz may be a added acceptable choice
• PTP or PTMP charge be alleged and anniversary assemblage set up in the adapted approach to do the job adapted of them.
3 How to change IP addresses on a PC active XP, Vista or Wins 7
If you already apperceive how to analysis and change a arrangement computer’s IP abode in order
to set up a wireless assemblage for use on the network, skip this section.
This breadth will accord with ambience up Ubiquiti radios active AirOS V operating arrangement for
use with networks active Windows XP, Vista and Windows 7.
Ubiquiti networks units actualization on the end of their box what the cardinal of the installed
operating arrangement is and that cardinal should be 5 or college for use with the instructions
below. Earlier versions chase the aforementioned attempt but the screenshots may not be exactly
the aforementioned as those apparent here. By default, the IP abode of any Ubiquiti assemblage is always
192.168.1.20 out of the box. (Broadcast Warehouse will set these links up for you, so this advice is for approaching advertence only)
If your arrangement or computers are application the IP abode ambit of 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.1.255 you are actual advantageous and can skip a lot of this breadth unless you already
have a PC on the arrangement application 192.168.1.20, in which case you will charge to change
that unit’s abode to a altered end number. .250 is usually a acceptable best as a
temporary admeasurement while the PC is acclimated to set up the Ubiquiti units.
If you charge to attending at the IP addresses of all the PCs on the arrangement to acquisition an IP
address that is chargeless on the network, download Superscan from
install it, and run it to get a account of all accessories on the arrangement and their IP addresses.
To set a Ubiquiti unit’s IP abode you charge to be able to affix to it application a web browser such
as Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Safari Chrome etc. BUT the PC from which you do that MUST be on
the abode ambit 192.168.1.… or it won’t see the Ubiquiti assemblage at all. This may mean
that the PC charge accept its IP abode afflicted and the instructions beneath awning how that
is done. The accepted is:
- put the PC on the aforementioned IP abode ambit as the Ubiquiti unit
- affix to the Ubiquiti unit
- change the IP abode of the Ubiquiti assemblage to bout the arrangement IP abode range
-change the PC’s abode aback to what it was afore you started
- affix to the Ubiquiti assemblage afresh with the web browser to set it up.
It takes a while and it’s a bit cumbersome, but is straightforward.
From the Windows desktop bang Start, afresh bang Run to get a box on awning like this:
Type cmd in the box abutting to the chat ‘Open:’ and bang OK. A fresh window will accessible like this
To accomplish activity easier. bang anywhere on the box, afresh blazon cd.. and columnist return, afresh do
it again, until you get to aloof C:> on the larboard of the screen. Now you can use the Command
Line interface (that’s what it’s called) for the abutting step.
Type ipconfig and columnist Enter. You should accept alternate to you four curve of text. The
middle two curve are the important ones and the numbers you see will apparently be
different to these:
Ethernet Adapter Local Breadth Connection
Connection-specific DNS suffix…………:
IP address…………………………………: 18.104.22.168
Subnet mask………………………………: 255.255.255.0
This tells us that the arrangement abode ambit for the PC you are application is 192.168.3 and
this PC has the cardinal 54. The subnet affectation has calmly not been changed.
First we change the PC’s IP abode to it can see the Ubiquiti unit, which is on
192.168.1.20. Bang on the Arrangement figure in the basal adapted bend of the PC’s screen:
In Windows 7 the figure looks like this
(If you don’t accept the icon, bang Start\Control Panel\letwork access and skip down
this folio a bit.) A fresh window will pop up. In Windows XP accept Accessible Network
Connections. In Windows Vista and 7 accept Arrangement and Sharing Center
In Vista, accept Manage Arrangement Connections
Next there’s addition box. In XP, Vista and Windows 7 all accept a altered layout, but look
for the Local Breadth Affiliation and bang on it. Bang Properties at the basal of the box
Next awning - bang on Internet Affiliation Properties or Internet Protocol Version 4
to baddest the line, afresh bang the Properties button. In Windows 7 you can bang on the
Properties button beeline abroad – whatever awning you accept in advanced of you find
Properties and bang on it.
XP, Vista and Windows 7 all now present a actual agnate screen. If the PC was set to
obtain an IP abode automatically (the router is accomplishing the DHCP) there will be a balloon in
‘Obtain an IP abode automatically.’ If the balloon is in ‘Use the afterward IP address’ there
will be an IP abode that addition has ahead entered. If there are numbers
showing, abode them bottomward about safe because they’re about to be changed
temporarily and if they are not put aback absolutely as they are now in due advance the PC
will abandon from the network.
The IP abode of the PC charge now be afflicted to bout the ambit that the Ubiquiti assemblage uses by default. The aboriginal 3 numbers MUST be 192.168.1.… and the aftermost cardinal can be annihilation except 20 – which the Ubiquiti will anon be using. Blazon the numbers in, accumulate the subnet affectation as 255.255.255.0, and bang OK. Now aback out of all the antecedent screens until you are at an abandoned desktop.
If you appetite to be abiding that the IP abode is set correctly, accessible up the cmd window afresh and blazon ipconfig as you did before. This time the IP abode should be
192.168.1.[whatever cardinal you chose - and it mustn’t be 20 - here]
The abutting footfall is to set up the Ubiquiti units to bout the abode that the PC arrangement you are ambidextrous with is on. In this archetype the abode ambit is 192.148.3.… so the Ubiquiti assemblage (or a brace of units if you are aloof creating a PTP Bridge) will now accept to accept its IP abode afflicted as the abutting footfall in the setup.
Remember that aback the Ubiquiti unit(s) accept been set up, this PC will charge to be
returned to its aboriginal IP abode by activity through the action afresh and ambience it
either to ‘Obtain an IP abode automatically’ or accept the actual IP abode put aback as it was aback you started. It’s a abundant faster action afterwards you’ve done it once….
4. Ambience up Ubiquiti units in Arch and AP/Client Modes
This breadth deals with ambience up Ubiquiti wireless ethernet units for use on a arrangement in Arch of AP/Client modes.
Ensure that the PC you are application to affix to the Ubiquiti assemblage has an IP abode in the ambit 192.168.1. n [where n is amid 1 and 254 and is NOT 20].
All Ubiquiti units accept an ethernet port.
There are two possibilities for wiring, depending on whether your mains assemblage has a Ability Over Ethernet atrium congenital in, or whether you accept a abstracted mains accumulation and a POE injector. This is how they angle calm to accumulation abstracts and ability via the ethernet cable to the Ubiquiti unit:
The breadth of the ethernet cable is important. Although it will backpack the abstracts up to 100 metres, the ability is agitated by two added pairs of affairs in the cable and because the affairs are attenuate (typically 22 AWG) the voltage delivered at the added end of the cable is bargain and the best the cable is the added it’s reduced. A 10 accent cable will not accomplish a cogent voltage drop, 20 metres will, and a 50 accent cable will abate the ability accessible at the radio assemblage a lot, to the point that it may not assignment well, or may not assignment at all. As the cable breadth increases, the manual ability of the assemblage will drop, because the radio does not accept abundant ability accessible for it to assignment properly. For this acumen we don’t acclaim application added than 20 metres of ethernet cable with Ubiquiti radios aback application a 24 volt supply: lower accumulation voltages will bear appropriately beneath ability to the radio over the aforementioned breadth of cable, so 24 volts is a acceptable starting voltage, but don’t go college than that with Ubiquiti gear, it won’t angle it.
Hook up as per the diagram and about-face the ability on at the mains. NEVER admit an
ethernet bung with ability on it into the radio unit. ALWAYS about-face the ability on and off at the mains accumulation to the mains unit. ‘Hot plugging’ applies a ample accepted to
the ability accumulation regulators in the radio assemblage which they are not advised to handle.
Switching the ability on at the mains assemblage allows the accepted to acceleration to the akin adapted added slowly. Wrecking the ability regulators by hot active is not covered by assurance – it is misuse.
Ubiquiti radios do not abutment 48v ability food as are sometimes begin on
hubs and switches. If you affix a Ubiquiti assemblage to such a about-face or hub, the unit
will not survive and accident acquired is not covered by warranty.
Your radio assemblage should now be active and the LED with the ability attribute should be lit. There may be added LEDS lit but for the moment you can avoid them. If you accept no Ability LED lit, analysis that you accept aggregate active as per the diagram and the ability is on.
Start up your adopted browser and blazon into the abode bar 192.168.1.20 and columnist enter. (You may acquisition that http:// is amid for you by the browser, but it is not all-important to affix to the radio unit.
Your web browser should acknowledgment a awning allurement for a username and password, which by absence are ubnt for both – this is accounting on the box the assemblage came in for reference.Broadcast Wrehouse will NOT change the username and countersign from the absence settings The exact awning that is presented depends on how the browser has been set up by the user but in all cases the username and countersign are what needs to be entered.
You should now see a awning like this, and you are logged into the Ubiquiti assemblage and on the Main page. Bear in apperception that the screens you see from actuality advanced will be like this one, with bristles tabs beyond the top, but the exact actualization and the boxes and legends will alter a little according to which Ubiquiti assemblage you accept connected. The pictures you see actuality are for 5.8 GHz units.
The aboriginal footfall is to set the assemblage up with an IP abode that apparel the network. Our archetype has the arrangement abode ambit 192.148.3.nnn, so we charge to change the arrangement settings of the unit. Bang the Arrangement tab to get a awning like this and accomplish abiding there is a balloon in Static in the row Arch IP address. Now overtype the IP Abode with the cardinal you want. (For the moment, 200 is a acceptable applicant as the final cardinal in the IP address, but you will accept arrested already that this cardinal will be chargeless and accessible on the network)
Here are the changes. If you don’t accept Primary DNS IP use the aforementioned cardinal as the IP address. If you don’t accept a Gateway IP cardinal to duke use 254 as the aftermost three digits for the moment. Bang Change and you will get a acknowledging bulletin at the top of the awning – Apply the changes. Bethink that this assemblage is about to abandon entirely, as the PC will no best be able to allocution to it because it’s on a altered IP abode range.
Setting up the wireless units to allocution to one another
Do this from one place, on a bench, afore demography units out to install them in remote
locations. This will ensure that they are all talking to anniversary added afore you go climbing
1) As a Arch ( Acclimated for STL connections)
Connect both Ubiquiti units to the network. We will stick with our archetype IP addresses
in which the units accept been set up as 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.2 Web browse
into .1 first. We will set this as one end of the bridge. Bang the Wireless tab
There are three settings that accept to change.
• Set the Wireless Approach as Access Point WDS. (This is counter-intuitive – we’d
expect ‘Bridge’ as an option, but Ubiquiti use Access Point WDS so we charge go with
• Decide on a Service Set Identifier (SSID). This sounds complicated but aloof agency a
name for the link. We use MS_BRIDGE for this example. Blazon in your preferred
name – no spaces before, no spaces afterwards and no spaces anywhere abroad either.
• Baddest the Country Code and if you appetite to break aural the acknowledged banned as you should,
put a beat in Obey Regulatory Regime too.
• Bang the Change Button, afresh bethink to Apply the changes.
Now web browse into the assemblage that will be acclimated as the added end of the arch – in this case 192.168.1.2 Set the
wireless approach as Station WDS, the SSID absolutely the aforementioned as the name you acclimated for
the added end (check for no spaces afore and after), and the Country Code and
regulatory Regime. Bang the Change button followed by Apply.
You should now accept a alive bridge. If you appetite to be 100% assertive that all is well,
connect the added assemblage (.1) anon into a laptop (on the aforementioned IP ambit of course),
and analysis in a way you prefer: you can alpha the command window and ping
192.168.1.1 and you should get a reply, or if you’re application Superscan aloof browse the
network and you’ll see .1 in the account – and every added PC on the arrangement too. Or just
open My Computer and attending for the added PCs on the network.
The LED lights on the assemblage are helpful: the aboriginal shows that ability is on, the added shows
activity on the active arrangement and the aftermost four actualization arresting backbone of the wireless link.
You are attractive for four greens, with no ambers or reds.
Remember: Set up as a arch the Ubiquiti Units can see alone the added end of that
particular bridge, and will not allocution to any added radio assemblage at all.
The final folio beneath shows what a acceptable alive articulation looks like application a Nanostation M5
running as one end of a link. It is accessible to absence the dejected links in the Monitor breadth which
offer added actual advantageous screens.
Broadcast Warehouse will bureaucracy the units on the afterward IP addresses